Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. [2] The major worship forms of Shiva temples are for Shiva, Parvathi, Ganesha and Muruga. [citation needed], Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai, Ennore and Thoothukudi, as well as seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam. Crore) and Growth (% YoY)", "Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly history", "HDI and GDI Estimates for India and the States/UTs: Results and Analysis", "Human Development Index of India & Major States, 1981 – 2001", "Press Information Bureau English Releases", "Biodiversity, Tamil Nadu Dept. He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals, crafts and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been increasingly documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Add additional sheets, if necessary)Technical Qualification[Typewriting, Computer etc,. [139] Idlis, dosas, and sambar are quite common throughout the state. Alanganallur is famous for its Jallikattu[117][118] contest usually held on the third day of Pongal. Here we have A to Z information for you. 16,564 Revenue villages (Village Panchayat) are the primary grassroots level administrative units which in turn might include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Major national and global IT companies such as Atos Syntel, Infosys, Wipro, HCL Technologies, Tata Consultancy Services, Verizon, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, Amazon.com, Capgemini, CGI, PayPal, IBM, NTT DATA, Accenture, Ramco Systems, Robert Bosch GmbH, DXC Technology, Cognizant, Tech Mahindra, Virtusa, LTI, Mphasis, Mindtree, Zoho, and many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. Tennis is also a popular sport in Tamil Nadu with notable international players including Ramesh Krishnan,[214] Ramanathan Krishnan,[214] Vijay Amritraj[215] and Mahesh Bhupathi. Religion. [168][citation needed]. [190] BSNL provides 2G & 3G mobile internet connections and all other three operators provide 2G, 3G & 4G Mobile broadband connections across Tamil Nadu. The total number of Hindus in Tamil Nadu as per 2011 Indian census is 63,188,168 which forms 87.58% of the total population of Tamil Nadu. [149] Annual food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 10035,000 mt. [93] Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of literacy growth during the decade 2001–2011. In 1972, M. G. Ramachandran founded the new Dravidian party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) named after his political mentor C. N. Annadurai popularly called "Anna". Vettuvan Koil, the unfinished temple is believed to have been built during the 8th century by Pandyas in Kalugumalai, a panchayat town in Thoothukudi district. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully. In 2011 the Madras High Court Bench ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the Pongal festival while disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight. A survey conducted by the industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100 per cent gross enrolment ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. [30], Kallanai or Grand Anicut, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in Thanjavur district by Karikala Chola around the 2nd century CE[31][32][33][34], Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram during the 8th century, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ramachandran Central Railway Station is the gateway for trains towards the north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as the gateway for the south. Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation in educational institutions for socially backward sections of society, the highest among all Indian states. [citation needed]. [194], Tamil Nadu has the third largest installed power generation capacity in the country. The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. According to the tradition, St. Thomas, one of the twelve apostles, landed in Malabar Coast in 52 CE. Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata. [62] The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. [14][15] Many of them retain some Jain customs such as vegetarianism. Tourism in Tamil Nadu 3 Goals of Tourism Department 4 Strategy 5 4. [220] The state boasts some of the grand Hindu temples built-in Dravidian architecture. [92] As of 2001 census Tamil is spoken as the first language by nearly 90 per cent of the state's population followed by Telugu (5.65%), Kannada (1.67%), Urdu (1.51%), Malayalam (0.89%).[4]. The Muslim invasions of southern India triggered the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire with Vijayanagara in modern Karnataka as its capital. The city is one of the largest exporters of wet grinders and auto components and the term "Coimbatore Wet Grinder" has been given a Geographical indication. The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013.[183]. The famine led to the migration of people as bonded labourers for the British to various countries which eventually formed the present Tamil diaspora. When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1688, the northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the Nawab of the Carnatic, who had his seat in Arcot from 1715 onward. [131], There are more than 30 television channels of various genres in Tamil. In all Hindu form majority religion in 32 out of 32 districts of Tamil Nadu state. The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chittirai and the first day of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. Tamil Nadu has Indian Union Muslim League, Indian National League, Manithaneya Makkal Katchi, Manithaneya Jananayaga Katchi, All India Muslim League, Tamil Nadu Thowheed Jamaath and other smaller parties in support of Muslims. [201] With a generating capacity of 648 MWp at a single location, it is the world's sixth largest (as of 2018) solar park. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. They are found in almost all villages throughout India, and more common in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Hundreds of Hindu temples have been confiscated and are mismanaged by the Tamil Nadu state government under Tamil Nadu Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Act XXII of 1959. [140], For the year 2014–15 Tamil Nadu's GSDP was ₹9.767 trillion (US$140 billion), and growth was 14.86. Hinduism is the largest religion of Tamil Nadu. Islam is the third largest religion of Tamil Nadu accounting for around 5.86 percent of the population according to the 2011 census. The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7 per cent of the total poultry population in India. Tamil Nadu has four mobile service providers including BSNL,[187] Airtel,[188] JIO[189] and Vodafone Idea. Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. After the fall of Kingdom of Mysore, the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai, then known as Madras, as a metropolitan city. Indian Angiosperm diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for 1/3 of the total flora of India. 90, No. The state comprises 39 Lok Sabha constituencies and 234 Legislative Assembly constituencies.[61]. After the demise of C. N. Annadurai, M. Karunanidhi became the leader of the party which was supported by majority leaders including then famous actor M. G. Ramachandran. [3] Airtel Broadband,[191] Act Broadband[192] BSNL, Hathway[193] and few others are providing high speed Fiber Optic broadband connection in many cities & rural areas across Tamil Nadu. Notification No. Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. Religion Data. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. A total of 14,438,445 people constituting 20.01 per cent of the total population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 794,697 people constituting 1.10 per cent of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST). It was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. [147] The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is divided in to four major divisions as per the ancient Tamil kings namely Pallava Nadu division, Chera Nadu division, Chola Nadu division and Pandya Nadu division and the four divisions are further subdivided into 38 districts, which are listed below. [217] The SDAT owns and operates world-class stadiums and organises sporting events. Candidates would have to contact their school for official mark sheet from April 20, 2019 to April 26, 2019. Tamil Nadu (Tamil: [ˈtamiɻ ˈnaːɽɯ] (listen)) is one of the 28 states of India. The Pudukkottai kingdom has the distinction of being the only princely state in Tamil Nadu, and only became part of the Indian union in 1948 after independence.[48]. [145][146] Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. The government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private investors at 14.9 per cent. Rani Velu Nachiyar, was the first woman freedom fighter of India and Queen of Sivagangai. Christians and Muslims both have a share of around 6 percent in the population of Tamil Nadu, and the share of both has grown slowly to this level from somewhat less than 5 percent in 1951. [141] It ranks third in foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of ₹225.826 billion ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country. Hinduism is the largest religion in Tamil Nadu. [152], Dr. M.S. As per 2011 Census Tamil nadu population religion wise, Hinduism is the largest religion with 63 million - 87.5%, followed by Muslim with 5.8%, Christianity with 6%. [116] The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum – literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities – is often quoted with reference to this festival. [94] The analysis of primary school education in the state by Pratham shows a low drop-off rate but the poor quality of state education compared to other states. [3] It ranks 11th among all Indian states in human development index. The chieftains of these Palayams were known as Palaiyakkarar (or 'polygar' as called by British) and were ruling under the nawabs of the Carnatic. Vasudevan Baskaran was the captain of the Indian team that won the gold medal in the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. (b) : No such data is available with the Government. [198] Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34 per cent. TN (Tamil Nadu) Lok Sabha Elections 2019: Know all about Tamil Nadu General Election 2019 schedule, election dates, announcements, process, Tamil Nadu lok sabha election results. The Other Backward Classes (OBCs) formed 68% of the state's population.The remaining population of 10.89% is forward community. Subject Page No. The Justice Party which was under E. V. Ramasamy was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944. POPULATION DENSITY AND GROWTH OF TAMIL NADU: The population density of the state of Tamil Nadu is 555 persons per square kilometer. According to Ministry of Tourism statistics, 4.68 million foreign (20.1% share of the country) and 333.5 million domestic tourists (23.3% share of the country) visited the state in 2015 making it the most visited state in India both domestic and foreign tourists. Arakkonam is one of the constituencies in 39-seat Tamil Nadu. [219], The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. Such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the north-west and Andhra Pradesh to the north. Dheeran Chinnamalai (1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and ally of Tipu Sultan who fought the British in the Second Polygar War. [134][135] Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator Arasu Cable. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its infrastructure.[216]. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Anna University, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, College of Engineering, Guindy, Madras Institute of Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Tamil Nadu National Law University, Government Law College, Coimbatore, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Madras Medical College, Stanley Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, University of Madras, Vellore Institute of Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore Medical College and Institute of Road and Transport Technology. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, and therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language". Mahamagam a bathing festival at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. The question is: Who made them? Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. [53] Pamban Island and a group of smaller limestone shoals make up the northern portion of Adam's Bridge, which was formerly a natural bridge linking India with Sri Lanka. After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency. During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. The 2019 elections in Tamil Nadu were a game changer in many ways. Chennai, the capital of the state is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major metropolitan cities of India. Average literacy rate in Tamil Nadu for rural areas was 73.54 percent. [208] Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan,[209] Krishnamachari Srikkanth,[210] Laxman Sivaramakrishnan, Sadagoppan Ramesh, Laxmipathy Balaji,[211] Murali Vijay,[212] Ravichandran Ashwin[213] , Vijay Shankar, Murali Karthik, Washington Sundar, Subramaniam Badrinath, Abhinav Mukund and Dinesh Karthik are some prominent cricketers from Tamil Nadu. [81] The sex ratio of the state is 995 with 36,137,975 males and 36,009,055 females. According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total population. The party was called after its English organ, Justice Party, by its opponents. [138], Thoothukudi is the place of origin of the Thoothukudi macaroon, Tirunelveli is known for its wheat Halva, Salem is renowned for its unique mangoes, Madurai is the place of origin of the milk dessert Jigarthanda while Palani is known for its Panchamirtham. Oomaithurai, younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothers, Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an army. [63][64] In 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717. The Pudukkottai Thondaimans rose to power over the Pudukkottai area by the end of the 17th Century. The state had come under the president's rule on four occasions – first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT), a government body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state. [133] The government of Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families in 2006 at an estimated cost ₹3.6 billion (US$50 million) of which has led to high penetration of TV services. A record 95.2 percent students have cleared the Tamil Nadu SSLC 2019 examination this year. [153] Tamil Nadu Agricultural University with its seven colleges and thirty-two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies. Other problems include class, gender, inter-district, and urban-rural disparities. [95] Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular South India and parts of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar winner A. R. Rahman[122][123][124] who has composed film music in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, English and Chinese films. The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. George in Chennai. Ein weiterer Ausläufer, die Palani-Berge, ragt in die östlich vorgelagerte Tiefebene hinein. Software exports from Tamil Nadu grew from ₹76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003–04 to ₹207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006–07 according to NASSCOM[172] and to ₹366 billion in 2008–09 which shows 29 per cent growth in software exports according to STPI. Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. [158] Coimbatore is often referred to as the "Manchester of South India" due to its cotton production and textile industries. “It identified that the percentage of households having only one voter in all religious communities is 11%. Community wise tentative allotment for number of Fresh scholarship to Tamil Nadu for the year 2019-20 are given below:- Muslims Christians Sikhs Buddhists Jains Total 1085 1134 4 3 23 2249 *There is no target for renewal scholarships. [36] The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. [65][66][67] The rural bodies include 31 district panchayats, 385 panchayat unions and 12,524 village panchayats.[68][69][70]. Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state. There are 2,614 Hand Processing Units (25 per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing Units (40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. In the state of Tamil Nadu, India the most widely professed religion is Hinduism, with significant Christian and Muslim minorities. [107] The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BCE.[108][109]. The British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like Battle of Wandiwash as part of the Seven Years' War. Tourism in India 2 3. ANSWER: MINISTER OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT (SHRI RAMESH POKHRIYAL ‘NISHANK’) (a) : The percentage of students, out of those who appeared in the NEET (UG)-2019, from the State of Tamil Nadu and cleared this Examination, is 48.57. As per Election Commission, the final polling percentage in state's 38 parliamentary constituencies stood as follows: [199] From a power surplus state in 2005–06, Tamil Nadu has become a state facing severe power shortage over the recent years due to lack of new power generation projects and delay in commercial power generation at Kudankulam Atomic Power Project. Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. 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