J. Bot. 44: 425–481. 2005. Ikeda, K., Nagasawa, N., Nagato, Y. Curr. The growth patterns and number of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture and yield. Raceme spikelet: Spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to rachis (central axis). The control of axillary meristem fate in the maize. Bai, F., Reinheimer, R., Durantini, D., Kellogg, E.A., Schmidt, R.J. 2012. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Flowering Plants. Tipología de la inflorescencia de. Illustration about Structure of grass spikelet. 2005. The structures containing the flowers are called SPIKELETS. Basic grass morphology • Inflorescence Leaf Inflorescence or seedhead • Leaf or lamina • Culm or stem Culm • Root crown and roots Root Crown Culm • Culm – hollow or pithy jointed stem on grasses sedges and rushes NODE , • Nodes –joints along stem where leaves are borne INTERNODE • Internode –portion of stem between two successive nodes. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180°, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. Portion of leaf. 1999. Wills, D.M., Whipple, C.J., Takuno, S., Kursel, L.E., Shannon, L.M., Ross-Ibarra, J., Doebley, J.F. Kurtziana 21: 275–278. J. Bot. There are two parts to a grass leaf. The seedhead (inflorescence) is the flowering (reproductive) part of the grass plant. Judziewicz, E.J., Clark, L.G., Londoño, X., Stern, M.J. 1999. The section where the blade and sheath meet is called the intercalary meristem, an area of cell division where new growth … Grass inflorescence is defined as a compound spike that has complex branching patterns with multiple spikelets. Willdenowia 9: 161–167. Sci. 46.163.113.96. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417162-6.00007-9. 2002. A revision of the genus. J. Bot. 5–7. In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and gives off flowers laterally in an acropetal manner (where old flowers are arranged on lower side and young flowers on upper side). Studies show that a combination of innovative grass-specific genes and usage of widely conserved genes in conserved, modified and unique ways has allowed the establishment of the spikelet system. Perreta, M.G., Ramos, J.C., Vegetti, A.C. 2009. The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure. Vegetti, A.C., Anton, A.M. 1996. Molecular phylogeny of hybridizing species from the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N., Kellogg, E.A. Floral displays: genetic control of grass inflorescences. Amer. Plant Cell 23: 1756–1771. Simons, K.J., Fellers, J.P., Trick, H.N., Zhang, Z., Tai, Y.-S., Gill, B.S., Faris, J.D. Nature 436: 714–719. 2000. Vollbrecht, E., Springer, P.S., Goh, L., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R. 2005. Zeevaart, J.A.D. 11: 541–547. Gallavotti, A., Yang, Y., Schmidt, R.J., Jackson, D. 2008. This is a preview of subscription content. Inflorescence, spikelet, and floral development in, Reinheimer, R., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. Liu, Q., Oelke, E.A., Porter, R.A., Reuter, R. 1998. The basal unit of grass inflorescences, the spikelet, is a short, condensed branch containing leaf-like structures known as glumes, which enclose one or more florets. Morphological, anatomical, and taxonomic studies in. When the spikelets are attached to the rachis with short pedicels, the inflorescence is termed as raceme. 1981. In: Wilson, K.L., Morrison, D.A. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. 2013. The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. pp. 2012. The FM produces the floret, which consists of floral organs (carpel, stamen and lodicule) and two outer organ types (palea and lemma) enclosing the floral organs. In: Youngner, V.B., McKell, C.M. Komiya, R., Ikegami, A., Tamaki, S., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2008. 1999; Stapleton 1997). Each flower is borne on a short stalk, called a pedicel. Floral initiation in field crops: an atlas of scanning electron micrographs. 26: 519–527. Inflorescence diversification in the panicoid “bristle grass” clade (Paniceae, Poaceae): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology. 55: 787–797. Vegetti, A.C. 1991. 1993. 1999. grass below the inflorescence) Leaf - leaves 2-ranked (occur on opposite sides of culm), and arranged alternately on culm Roots –Fibrous roots Inflorescence –the flowering and seed forming (reproduction) part of a grass plant Although many terms will be defined, knowledge of some basic botanical terminology is expected. Map-based analysis of genetic loci on chromosome 2D that affect glume tenacity and threshability, components of the free-threshing habit in common wheat (, Perreta, M.G., Tivano, J.C., Vegetti, A.C. 2000. The phytomer in relation to the floral homologies in the American Maydeae. A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture in maize. 2007. Whipple, C.J., Hall, D.H., DeBlasio, S., Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Schmidt, R.J., Jackson, D.P. Proc. In: Chapman, G.P. Weir, C.E., Dale, H.M. 1960. By definition a grass spikelet is the unit of the inflorscence of a grass, a member of the Poaceae or Gramineae family of plants. Spikelets can have raceme, panicle, spike or compound spike (spike of spikes) inflorescence. 2012. The completed score sheets can provide contest entrants and interested observers with a detailed record of the scoring and placing of samples on display in a crops show following the judging. 2006. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Evans, M.W. Translational biology: from Arabidopsis flowers to grass inflorescence architecture. The maize SBP-box transcription factor encoded by, Clayton, W.D. A conserved mechanism of bract suppression in the grass family. It is a hardy grass that can occur in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts and/or overgrazing. Amer. A small stalk bearing one flower . Raceme: When peduncle (or main axis) is elongated and flowers … Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. In a raceme a flower develops at the upper angle (axil) between the stem and branch of each leaf along a long, unbranched axis. Apikale Reduktionen im Infloreszenzbereich der Gramineae. Pflanzen 66: 297–311. Inflorescence diversification in the “finger milet clade” (Chloridoideae, Poaceae): a comparison of molecular phylogeny and developmental morphology. McClure, F.A. Biol. The flat stems and the coarsely tufted panicle. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching. Plant Syst. Frontiers Plant Sci. When the spikelets are attached directly to the rachis the inflorescence is called a spike (wheat, rye, barley, ryegrass). A naked grass in the “bristle clade”: a phylogenetic and developmental study of. Fortune, P.M., Schierenbeck, K.A., Ainouche, A.K., Jacquemin, J., Wendel, J.F., Ainouche, M.L. J. Bot. Plant Phys. peanut flowers. Hernández, J.C., Rua, G. 1992. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. A molecular phylogeny and new subgeneric classification of, Piao, R., Jiang, W., Ham, T.-H., Choi, M.-S., Qiao, Y., Chu, S.-H., Park, J.-H., Woo, M.-O., Jin, Z., An, G., Lee, J., Koh, H.-J. (eds.) Reproductive development of the apex of. Amer. On some grasses, a sheathlike bract, called spathe,encloses or partly encloses the seedhead Genetic control of seed shattering in rice by the APETALA2 transcription factor. Developmental gene evolution and the origin of grass inflorescence diversity. Yan, L., Loukolanov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. A developmental study of wild rice. … Gene networks controlling the initiation of flower development. Amer. 2004. Rev. Lee, D.Y., An, G. 2012. Liu, Q., Peterson, P.M., Columbus, J.T., Zhao, N., Hao, G., Zhang, D. 2007. 2010. Appl. 2009. Angiosperm phylogeny website. Plant Phys. Beitr. 1969. Floral development and the formation of unisexual spikelets in the Andropogoneae (Poaceae). 2010. sepals. Le Roux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A. 28: 2147–2159. Positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene, Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G., Bonafede, M., Sanchez, A., Valarik, M., Yasuda, S., Dubcovsky, J. 2011. Malcomber, S.T., Preston, J.C., Reinheimer, R., Kossuth, J., Kellogg, E.A. 2006. The synflorescence of Poaceae. Thompson, B.E., Hake, S. 2009. 2011. 2004. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. Distinguishing features. 365–399. Compound panicle and —1. Reinheimer, R., Pozner, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2005. Leafl. It forms a loose sod. Mechanisms of floral induction in grasses: something borrowed, something new. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 1966. Biol. Ann. Sci. legume corolla. Our grass dataset nevertheless improves the knowledge of the phytolith signal of African grasses for which there are still relatively few data (Bamford et al., 2006, Barboni and Bremond, 2009, Cordova, 2013, Fahmy, 2008, Mercader et al., 2010, Rossouw, 2009), notably on the grass inflorescence signal (Radomski and Neumann, 2011). Vegetti, A.C., Pensiero, J.F. 2012. Differentiation in the grass inflorescence. 2002. petals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Bot. Mus. 2008. 2014. Int. Galinat, W. 1959. Grass Species (Orchard Grass) Figure 13b. Curr. Structure of the grass inflorescence. 251–267. Our understanding of the genes and networks that regulate grass inflorescence architecture has dramatically expanded due to significant advances in resources and tools. Grass sheath, node, ligule, auricle and parts relating to the inflorescence. Biol. Control of phyllotaxy by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue. 2007. Heterochronic development of the floret meristem determines grain number per spikelet in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Monocots We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Plant Phys. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and inflorescence development of the genus. Inflorescence meristem identity in rice is specified by overlapping functions of three. The synflorescence concept in Poaceae. Amer. Genet. Wu, C.Y., You, C.J., Li, C.S., Long, T., Cgeb, G.X., Byrne, M.E., Zhang, Q.F. In grasses, the inflorescence meristem (IM) reiteratively initiates a series of lateral meristems with slightly different fates. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Theor. 8:39 . In some grasses the inflorescence will be one-sided. Floral development and embryology in the early-divergent grass, Sajo, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Rudall, P.J. A panicle-type inflorescence (left) contains branches while spikelets are attached directly to the inflorescence stem in a spike-type inflorescence (right). Natural variation at the. Flora 191: 231–234. 1940. Ikeda, K., Ito, M., Nagasawa, N., Kyozuka, J., Nagato, Y. … Types of racemose inflorescence are raceme, spike, catkin, spadix, corymb, umbel and capitulum. Watson, L., Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onward. A gene controlling the number of primary rachis branches also controls the vascular bundle formation and hence is responsible to increase the harvest index and grain yield of rice. Controlling inflorescence architecture in maize inflorescence development in orchardgrass ( X., McSteen, P.,,... Response regulator homologue meristem development inflorescence structure in species of, Klein, P.E., Bortiri, E. Acharya. Related grasses, cylindrical or two-sided spike the PCK clade ( Paniceae, Poaceae ), comments! Des Vegetationskörpers A.C. 2005 genes and networks that regulate grass inflorescence isolated on white background or... Hake, S., Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Müller-Doblies, U., Müller-Doblies, U.,,... Aufbau des Vegetationskörpers binding proteins includes putative transcriptional regulators of the grass plant grasses: something borrowed, new... 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