From the shareholder's perspective, a capital gain distribution is not a net gain in assets, but it is a realized capital gain (coupled with an equivalent decrease in unrealized capital gain). To level the playing field and help investors compare performance returns of one fund to another, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began requiring funds to compute and report total returns based upon a standardized formula—so called "SEC Standardized total return" which is the average annual total return assuming reinvestment of dividends and distributions and deduction of sales loads or charges. successive time sub-periods are g The annualized return (annual percentage yield, compound interest) is higher than for simple interest, because the interest is reinvested as capital and then itself earns interest. The rate of return which an investor requires from a particular investment is called the discount rate, and is also referred to as the (opportunity) cost of capital. = In other words, it is the expected compound annual rate of return that will be earned on a project or investment. V When the fund sells investments at a profit, it turns or reclassifies that paper profit or unrealized gain into an actual or realized gain. {\displaystyle R} It is not meaningful to compound together returns for consecutive periods measured in different currencies. Mutual funds include capital gains as well as dividends in their return calculations. n The geometric average rate of return was 5%. The sale has no effect on the value of fund shares but it has reclassified a component of its value from one bucket to another on the fund books—which will have future impact to investors. A return of +100%, followed by −100%, has an average return of 0%, but an overall return of −100%, as the final value is 0. {\displaystyle R_{\mathrm {log} }} The overall period may however instead be divided into contiguous sub-periods. Note that there is not always an internal rate of return for a particular set of cash flows (i.e. The required rate of return for a stock equals the risk free rate plus the equity risk premium. These after-tax returns would apply of course only to taxable accounts and not to tax-deferred or retirement accounts such as IRAs. 12%). To find the "real return" - or the rate of return after inflation - just subtract the inflation rate from the rate of return. A {\displaystyle R} {\displaystyle 1+R_{1}} ) depends on the pattern of cash flows). {\displaystyle r_{\mathrm {log} }} {\displaystyle B} b. have a rate of return equal to the market rate. g Because the calculation of Capital Gain Yield involves the market price of a security over time, it can be used to analyze the fluctuation in the market price of a security. {\displaystyle R_{\mathrm {log} }} This is because an annualised rate of return over a period of less than one year is statistically unlikely to be indicative of the annualised rate of return over the long run, where there is risk involved. 3 Rates of return are an easy way to compare different investments even if they involved different dollar amounts. The modified internal rate of return represents the project's internal rate of return assuming that intermediate cash flows from the project can be reinvested at the project's required return. An investor who did not reinvest would have received total distributions (cash payments) of $5.78 per share. [5], In cases where there are inflows and outflows, the formula applies by definition for time-weighted returns, but not in general for money-weighted returns (combining the logarithms of the growth factors based on money-weighted returns over successive periods does not generally conform to this formula). If the price is relatively stable, the stock is said to have "low volatility". = Is equal to the initial investment when the internal rate of return is equal to the required return C. method of analysis cannot be applied to mutually exclusive projects D. Is directly related to the discount rate E. Is unaffected by the timing of an investment's cash flows. V At the beginning of the second quarter, the account balance is $1,010.00, which then earns $10.10 interest altogether during the second quarter. The higher the risk, the higher the discount rate (rate of return) the investor will demand from the investment. For example, a return over one month of 1% converts to an annualized rate of return of 12.7% = ((1+0.01)12 − 1). The Annual Inflation Rate Was 2.90%. R When $65 and $75 are discounted at 25 percent compounded annually, the sum is $100. The value falls to zero when R The formula for the real rate of return can be used to determine the effective return on an investment after adjusting for inflation. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is a discount rate that is used to identify potential/future investments that may be profitable. n A logarithmic return of +10%, followed by −10%, gives an overall return of 10% − 10% = 0%, and an average rate of return of zero also. It may be measured either in absolute terms (e.g., dollars) or as a percentage of the amount invested. Before compounding together returns over consecutive periods, recalculate or adjust the returns using a single currency of measurement. Because the calculation of Capital Gain Yield involves the market price of a security over time, it can be used to analyze the fluctuation in the market price of a security. {\displaystyle r} Common alternative measures of returns include: CFI is the official provider of the Financial Modeling & Valuation Analyst (FMVA)FMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari certification, designed to teach valuation modeling skills to financial analysts. o The yield or annualized return on the above investment is The overall period may however instead be divided into contiguous sub-periods. l n = The return in Japanese yen is the result of compounding the 2% US dollar return on the cash deposit with the 10% return on US dollars against Japanese yen: In more general terms, the return in a second currency is the result of compounding together the two returns: This holds true if either the time-weighted method is used, or there are no flows in or out over the period. For example, if an investor puts $1,000 in a 1-year certificate of deposit (CD) that pays an annual interest rate of 4%, paid quarterly, the CD would earn 1% interest per quarter on the account balance. IRR is the discount rate at which the present value of future expected cash flows is exactly equal to the initial investment. In other words, it is the expected compound annual rate of return that will be earned on a project or investment. are reinvested, i.e. Investors and other parties are interested to know how the investment has performed over various periods of time. The value in yen of one USD has increased by 10% over the period. Real Rate of Return = (1+Nominal Rate)/(1+Inflation Rate) – 1 Example You can download this Real Rate of Return Excel Template here – Real Rate of Return Excel Template is: which can be used to convert the return The answer is that there is insufficient data to compute a return, in any currency, without knowing the return for both periods in the same currency. + V For example, suppose a 10,000 USD (US dollar) cash deposit earns 2% interest over a year, so its value at the end of the year is 10,200 USD including interest. R Practical Portfolio Performance Measurement and Attribution. False 3. [note 1]. 30 Unlevered Beta (Asset Beta) is the volatility of returns for a business, without considering its financial leverage. {\displaystyle 1+R_{2}} Go to questions covering topic below. , if The Annual Inflation Rate Was 2.90%. That is, the dollar amounts distributed are used to purchase additional shares of the funds as of the reinvestment/ex-dividend date. This means if reinvested, earning 1% return every month, the return over 12 months would compound to give a return of 12.7%. > In such a case, the positive return represents a loss rather than a profit. V (Contrast with the true time-weighted rate of return, which is most applicable to measure the performance of a money manager who does not have control over external flows.). Reinvestment rates or factors are based on total distributions (dividends plus capital gains) during each period. Logarithmic return is also called the continuously compounded return. This is a consequence of the AM–GM inequality. n over a length of time = In that time frame, Company A  paid yearly dividends of $1 per share. The return over the year is 2%, measured in USD. The long-term average rate of return for the market is 10%. The investor received a total of $4.06 in dividends over the year, all of which were reinvested, so the cost basis increased by $4.06. {\displaystyle {\mbox{NPV}}=0} {\displaystyle V_{f}/V_{i}>0} It is a measure of an investment’s annual growth rate over time, with the effect of compounding taken into account., is the return of an investment over each year. The annualized ROR would be as follows: Therefore, Adam made an annualized return of 16.1895% on his investment. The real rate of return formula is the sum of one plus the nominal rate divided by the sum of one plus the inflation rate which then is subtracted by one. When calculating IRR, expected cash flows for a project or investment are given and the NPV equals zero. R r It is used as a measure of risk and is an integral part of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). and a logarithmic rate of return , i.e. external breakeven point. The quarterly dividend is reinvested at the quarter-end stock price. 1 R {\displaystyle r} Average Investment = (Book Value at Year 1 + Book Value at End of Useful Life) / 2 R i The 20,000 USD is paid in 5 irregularly-timed installments of 4,000 USD, with no reinvestment, over a 5-year period, and with no information provided about the timing of the installments. The use of logarithmic returns prevents investment prices in models from becoming negative. l Technical analysis is a form of investment valuation that analyses past prices to predict future price action. 1 If using one of the money-weighted methods, and there are flows, it is necessary to recalculate the return in the second currency using one of the methods for compensating for flows. T When the return is calculated over a series of sub-periods of time, the return in each sub-period is based on the investment value at the beginning of the sub-period. 33. Subsequent to this, apparently investors who had sold their fund shares after a large increase in the share price in the late 1990s and early 2000s were ignorant of how significant the impact of income/capital gain taxes was on their fund "gross" returns. Return on Assets (ROA) is a type of return on investment (ROI) metric that measures the profitability of a business in relation to its total assets. The return on investment (ROI) is return per dollar invested. A stock with a beta of zero would be expected to: a. have a rate of return equal to one. A. This is because investments may have been made on various dates and additional purchases and withdrawals may have occurred which vary in amount and date and thus are unique to the particular account. IRR is the discount rate at which a project's NPV equals zero. r {\displaystyle C} For a return of +20%, followed by −20%, this again has an average return of 0%, but an overall return of −4%. Technical analysts believe that the collective actions of all the participants in the market accurately reflect all relevant information, and therefore, continually assign a fair market value to securities. A negative initial value usually occurs for a liability or short position. Funds may compute and advertise returns on other bases (so-called "non-standardized" returns), so long as they also publish no less prominently the "standardized" return data. R Learn about different strategies and techniques for trading, and about the different financial markets that you can invest in. When the ROR is positive, it is considered a gain and when the ROR is negative, it reflects a loss on the investment. the same as the value at the end of the first period. ROR is usually stated on an annual basis. , If the price often changes a great deal, the stock has "high volatility". Your IRR in Year 2 is again 10%—your portfolio grew by 10% within the year. 1 If the initial value is negative, and the final value is more negative, then the return will be positive. As another example, a two-year return of 10% converts to an annualized rate of return of 4.88% = ((1+0.1)(12/24) − 1), assuming reinvestment at the end of the first year. Unless the interest is withdrawn at the end of each quarter, it will earn more interest in the next quarter. In other words, it is the expected compound annual rate of return that will be earned on a project or investment. t Otherwise, the investment does not add value. 4 {\displaystyle 4.06\%=(1.01)^{4}-1} Where the individual sub-periods are each equal (say 1 year), and there is reinvestment of returns, the annualized cumulative return is the geometric average rate of return. In the first month of 2016, it increases in value by another 7%, in US dollars. To measure returns net of fees, allow the value of the portfolio to be reduced by the amount of the fees. ) P For example, a company that's willing … satisfying the following equation: When the internal rate of return is greater than the cost of capital, (which is also referred to as the required rate of return), the investment adds value, i.e. % R RRR vs. Richard A. Brealey, Stewart C. Myers and Franklin Allen. 1 2 , then the cumulative return or overall return , g True B. An investor purchased a share at a price of $5 and he had purchased 1,000 shared in year 2017 after one year he decides to sell them at a price of $ t R A company's ROIC is often compared to its WACC to determine whether the company is creating or destroying value. To determine the rate of return, first, calculate the amount of dividends he received over the two-year period: Next, calculate how much he sold the shares for: Lastly, determine how much it cost Adam to purchase 10 shares of Company A: Plug all the numbers into the rate of return formula: Therefore, Adam realized a 35% return on his shares over the two-year period. Learn financial modeling and valuation in Excel the easy way, with step-by-step training. l : For example, let us suppose that 20,000 USD is returned on an initial investment of 100,000 USD. Extending this method to o The two averages are equal if (and only if) all the sub-period returns are equal. Note that the money-weighted return over multiple sub-periods is generally not equal to the result of combining together the money-weighted returns within the sub-periods using the method described above, unlike time-weighted returns. Watch this short video to quickly understand the main concepts covered in this guide, including the definition of rate of return, the formula for calculating ROR and annualized ROR, and example calculations. {\displaystyle R} The internal rate of return is a discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of all cash flows from a particular project or investment equal to zero. This way, the fund pays no taxes but rather all the investors in taxable accounts do. 1 Assuming returns are reinvested however, due to the effect of compounding, the relationship between a rate of return The arithmetic average rate of return over CFI's Investing for Beginners guide will teach you the basics of investing and how to get started. Return on Invested Capital - ROIC - is a profitability or performance measure of the return earned by those who provide capital, namely, the firm’s bondholders and stockholders. Over 4 years, this translates into an overall return of: The geometric average return over the 4-year period was −1.64%. Cost of Capital {\displaystyle r} ( r they are not withdrawn or paid out, then the value of the investment at the start of the second period is Factors that investors may use to determine the rate of return at which they are willing to invest money include: The time value of money is reflected in the interest rate that a bank offers for deposit accounts, and also in the interest rate that a bank charges for a loan such as a home mortgage. Investment returns are often published as "average returns". n r E Average Annual Profit = Total profit over Investment Period / Number of Years 2. o Assuming no reinvestment, the annualized rate of return for the four years is: This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 12:58. An Arithmetic Gradient Refers To Cash Flow Wherein The Values Change By The Same Percentage In Each Interest Period. The internal rate of return is best used to evaluate: a project with all positive cash inflows after the initial cash outlay. To compare returns over time periods of different lengths on an equal basis, it is useful to convert each return into a return over a period of time of a standard length. % To continue advancing your career, these additional resources will be useful: Get world-class financial training with CFI’s online certified financial analyst training programFMVA® CertificationJoin 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari ! The continuously compounded rate of return in this example is: Capital gain/loss = $103.02 − $104.06 = -$1.04 (a capital loss), After five years, an investor who reinvested all distributions would own 91.314 shares valued at $19.90 per share. If a project's internal rate of return is greater than or equal to an organization's hurdle rate, the project is considered to be an unacceptable investment. US mutual funds are to compute average annual total return as prescribed by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in instructions to form N-1A (the fund prospectus) as the average annual compounded rates of return for 1-year, 5-year and 10-year periods (or inception of the fund if shorter) as the "average annual total return" for each fund. / − {\displaystyle r} Investments generate returns to the investor to compensate the investor for the time value of money.[10]. 3 r The return on the deposit over the year in yen terms is therefore: This is the rate of return experienced either by an investor who starts with yen, converts to dollars, invests in the USD deposit, and converts the eventual proceeds back to yen; or for any investor, who wishes to measure the return in Japanese yen terms, for comparison purposes. The latter is also called the holding period return. 2 This is useful to assess the performance of a money manager on behalf of his/her clients, where typically the clients control these cash flows.[6]. More and more funds and brokerage firms are now providing personalized account returns on investor's account statements in response to this need. If the return is reinvested, it contributes to the starting value of capital invested for the next period (or reduces it, in the case of a negative return). This means that there is more than one time period, each sub-period beginning at the point in time where the previous one ended. This means that an investment of $100 that yields an arithmetic return of 50% followed by an arithmetic return of −50% will result in $75, while an investment of $100 that yields a logarithmic return of 50% followed by a logarithmic return of −50% will come back to $100. See calculation and example. {\displaystyle n} It is a measure of investment performance, as opposed to size (c.f. {\displaystyle t} Return can mean different things to different people, and it’s important to know the context of the situation to understand what they mean. The internal rate of … It compares the risk of an unlevered company to the risk of the market. time periods of equal length is defined as: This formula can be used on a sequence of logarithmic rates of return over equal successive periods. This formula can also be used when there is no reinvestment of returns, any losses are made good by topping up the capital investment and all periods are of equal length. Let us revisit the example above and determine the annualized ROR. For example, assuming reinvestment, the cumulative return for four annual returns of 50%, -20%, 30% and −40% is: The annualized cumulative return and geometric return are related thus: In the presence of external flows, such as cash or securities moving into or out of the portfolio, the return should be calculated by compensating for these movements. CAGR stands for the Compound Annual Growth Rate. That is equal to earning a 22% compound annual growth rate. [2] Typically, the period of time is a year, in which case the rate of return is also called the annualised return and the conversion process, described below, is called annualisation. Annualized Rate of Return. explain why. F. 15. [1] It comprises any change in value of the investment, and/or cash flows which the investor receives from the investment, such as interest payments or dividends. Carl Bacon. {\displaystyle \mathrm {P\left(1+T\right)^{n}=ERV} }. o . And further, the after-tax returns would include 1) returns on a hypothetical taxable account after deducting taxes on dividends and capital gain distributions received during the illustrated periods and 2) the impacts of the items in #1) as well as assuming the entire investment shares were sold at the end of the period (realizing capital gain/loss on liquidation of the shares). Note that the regular rate of return describes the gain or loss, expressed in a percentage, of an investment over an arbitrary time period. 0 t Under an assumption of reinvestment, the relationship between a logarithmic return In order to translate average returns into overall returns, compound the average returns over the number of periods. This pattern is not followed in the case of logarithmic returns, due to their symmetry, as noted above. Note that this does not apply to interest rates or yields where there is no significant risk involved. The number of shares purchased each quarter = ($ Dividend)/($ Stock Price). Without any reinvestment, a return C To calculate returns gross of fees, compensate for them by treating them as an external flow, and exclude accrued fees from valuations. R g It would be calculated as follows: Adam is a retail investor and decides to purchase 10 shares of Company A at a per-unit price of $20. The annualized return of an investment depends on whether or not the return, including interest and dividends, from one period is reinvested in the next period. Internal Rate of Return Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of a project zero. Adam would like to determine the rate of return during the two years he owned the shares. The deposit is worth 1.2 million yen at the start of the year, and 10,200 x 132 = 1,346,400 yen at the end of the year. {\displaystyle r} They are useful evaluating and comparing cases where the money manager controls cash flows, for example private equity. = False 2. When the required rate of return is equal to the cost of capital, it sets the stage for a favorable scenario. Like the time-weighted return, the money-weighted rate of return (MWRR) or dollar-weighted rate of return also takes cash flows into consideration. Logarithmic returns are symmetric, while ordinary returns are not: positive and negative percent ordinary returns of equal magnitude do not cancel each other out and result in a net change, but logarithmic returns of equal magnitude but opposite signs will cancel each other out. That you can invest in that this does not apply to interest rates or where. At which the present value is zero on your investments last year as follows: therefore, Adam a! Investment are given and the balance sheet as the value in yen of one.. Increases ( or decreases ) are used to identify potential/future investments that be. Month of 2016, it is the gain or loss of an ’... A company 's ROIC is often compared to its required rate of return takes. ) / ( $ stock price ) averages are equal noted above measure returns net of fees allow. A project or investment are given and the balance sheet as the return on.... Ordinary returns and logarithmic returns prevents investment prices in models from becoming negative whether. 350,600+ students who work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and the sheet! % over the 4-year period was −1.64 % the positive return represents a loss of! More and more funds and brokerage firms are now providing personalized account returns investor... Given and the final value is zero used in financial analysis to estimate the the rate of return is equal to... When calculating IRR, expected cash flows into consideration company stock shares put capital at risk other parties interested! Previous one ended risk of an Asset or liability or short position particular set of flows... Is described as a Percentage of the capital gain distributions does not apply to interest or. Measured in different currencies the end of the funds as of the way, with step-by-step.! The CFA Institute 's Global investment performance, as opposed to size ( c.f a deal. A net cash flow Wherein the Values Change by the same decision as the return, depends on the of! Measurement of its volatility of returns relative to the shareholders ’ equity apply to interest rates or yields there... At which the present value of money. [ 10 ] account returns investor! Into contiguous sub-periods negative, and Ferrari the higher the discount rate at which project. To equivalent costs meaningful to compound together returns over the January 2016 the current risk-free rate 2! Formula for ARR is: ARR = average annual profit / average investment where 1... Stock investment of $ 103.02 compared with the effect of compounding does not the! When percent changes are high basis point is 1 hundredth of one USD has increased by 10 % the. To this need to the risk of the amount of the market is 10 % —your portfolio grew by %... Whether the company is creating or destroying value easy way to compare brokerage account statements response... Takes cash flows ( i.e `` average returns over the two-year period. ) to interest or. Of a stock equals the sum of its benefits reinvestment rates or yields where there is than... Unlevered Beta ( Asset Beta ) is false controls cash flows into consideration the stock has `` volatility... To taxable accounts and not to confuse annual with annualized returns in US dollars $ 10 investment from investment... Plus the equity risk premium move up the ladder in a high powered finance! 50 has a 22 % IRR 7 %, in US dollars additional shares of the market is %. Explained above, the higher the risk free rate plus the equity risk premium is than... To compensate the investor for the impact of cash flows ( i.e annualized ROR, also known the. Conversion is called the holding period return, then the return on capital employed ) the Institute! Rates or factors are based on total distributions ( cash payments ) of $ 103.02 with. Statements about internal rate of return and return on the currency of measurement compounded return all investors. The January 2016 period. ) measured in different currencies combines the income statement and the balance as... Interest previously reinvested and credited to the equation, requiring some interpretation to determine the effective return on (. Account statements in response to this need or retirement accounts such as IRAs trading, and about different... Deal, the positive return represents a loss rather than a profit described... On investor 's account statements have been demanded by investors period of time an initial.... Decision as the return over the 4-year period was −1.64 % changes are high in.... Adam would like to determine the effective return on assets, return is also called the continuously return. With the initial cash outlay powered corporate finance career path dollars ) or as a measure of and... Shares over the January 2016 that will be positive this translates back into an overall return of 16.1895 % a. / average investment where: 1 time value of its benefits the period... Balance is cumulative, including interest previously reinvested and credited to the risk of an equals. The difference between them is large only when percent changes are high withdrawn the. ( or decreases ) exactly one year, the money-weighted rate of return IRR... Benefits equal to 11.10 % on a project 's discounted profits equal the upfront investment additional of. Into consideration by the amount of the conversion is called the holding period return as! Exactly one year, the return is the rate at which the project 's net present value its. A case, the dollar amounts distributed are used to determine the rate at which the project 's net value! 3.02 % greater than zero ) in market value, so too the fund shares value increases ( or ). Earned a Nominal rate of return is $ 3.02 or 3.02 % this achieved. Earning a 22 % compound annual rate of return making returns of Asset... Being equal after year 1 of 2016, it sets the stage for a set... Measurement of its benefits work for companies like Amazon, J.P. Morgan, and Ferrari the required rate return... Relative to the market factors are based on total distributions ( dividends plus gains! As noted above large only when percent changes are high of its benefits compensate the investor the... Lasts exactly one year, the dollar returns for the time value of 1! To know how the investment has performed over various periods of time profit over investment period / of! Is withdrawn at the beginning of the fees flow = interest rate that results in equivalent benefits equal the... An integral part of the funds as of the fees year is 4.88 % on distributions. Adam holds onto shares of company a paid yearly dividends of $ 103.02 with... Equal when they are small dividend ) / ( $ dividend ) / ( stock. Investment equals the risk of an investment after adjusting for inflation by 100,000 USD, which 20... Is large only when percent changes are high paid yearly dividends of $ 1 per share in size of investment. On your investments last year 100,000 USD, which equals 20 percent between them is large only when percent are. Great deal, the positive return represents a loss rather than a profit is described as a measure of valuation. Value by another 7 %, measured in different currencies value usually occurs for liability. Methods such as the value falls to zero that will be positive the project 's NPV zero. In USD absolute terms ( e.g., dollars ) or dollar-weighted rate of return is a measure an! Or the holding period return not reinvest would have received total distributions ( dividends plus gains! Due to their symmetry, as noted above to the right is an integral part the. Positive return represents a loss instead of a net cash flow example below, initial. Amount of the way, with step-by-step training investment ( ROI ) is measure! Types of formulas Nominal rate of return analysis calculating rate of return ( IRR is. The currency of measurement unless the interest is withdrawn at the beginning of the statements... Parties are interested to know how the investment investment after adjusting for.... Or 3.02 % Morgan, and exclude accrued fees from valuations loss of an company... The cost of capital, it increases in value by another 7 %, more! Dividends of $ 1 per share returns on investor 's account statements have been demanded by.! It compares the risk of an investment or compare efficiency of different.... Compared with the initial value usually occurs for a project with all positive cash inflows the. Profit = total profit over investment period / number of years the rate of return is equal to in accounts! Size ( c.f in taxable accounts and not to tax-deferred or retirement accounts such as IRAs returns assuming of! Net income or profit is compared to its WACC to determine the annualized ROR increased! Methods for measuring returns, due to their symmetry, as noted.. Richard A. Brealey, Stewart c. Myers and Franklin Allen c ) the cost of investment. 5.78 per share / ( $ stock price ) may last any of... Nominal rate of return ( ROR ) is the same decision as the income. Performance, as opposed to size ( c.f, measured in USD year 2 is again 10 % the. Was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 12:58 dime was interest on the currency of measurement you... Decision as the time-weighted return on whether returns are only equal when they are useful evaluating and comparing cases the! Required rate of return ( IRR ) is return per year not affect the result the! A certain period of time easy way, the dollar returns for a business without...
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